Multi-cell aquifer model: 4Xcell

The 4Xcell model has been developed to assist the study of the hydrological basin of Viotikos Kifissos River. The main goal is neither to replace existing fully-distributed models that have been developed for the specific basin nor to bring new theoretical knowledge in the field of water modelling. The needs that this model would serve regard the water management in large hydrological units, through a combined use of surface and ground water data, resulting in predictions for the groundwater level and the availability of surface water. 

Description: Modelling the hydrological processes in a river basin, has been one of the main problems of hydrology. Several kinds of models have been developed. In this tool, the newly constructed semi-distributed model 4Xcell is presented, for the simultaneous simulation of evapotranspiration, runoff and karstic groundwater. It requires the subdivision of the area and the river κοίτη into sub-regions, a more or less continuous aquifer for the simulation of which quadruple cells are used. 4Xcell is accommodated in the very user-friendly environment of MS Excel®, it is calibrated by means of the advanced edition of the built-in Solver and the results include artificial time series for the aquifer water-levels, the groundwater storage, the actual evapotranspiration and the total runoff at the Karditsa outlet. It can be used on day, month or year basis.
4Xcell has been applied to the basin of Viotikos Kifissos in Central Hellas. It was calibrated for a five year period, due to lack of longer time-series, and verified for several other five-year periods. The results of the calibration show that the model is set on a very realistic platform, and that with more complete input data, great accuracy can be achieved. The results of the model verification, emphasize latter, as well as the need for long period calibration.
The model is constructed in the MSExcel® environment, which is user-friendly, and it does not make use of any VBA program or routine. Thus, it responds very quickly to any change of data or equation. The equations are being solved by means of an explicit method with a time step of a tenth of a month (almost 3 days). The calibration uses a combination of the “trial and error” method with the Excel® Solver, for the minimization of the objective function.


Our new company

This is our very first post on our website blog. Our intention is to share a few words about our company Green2Sustain and our three pylons: environment, sustainability and competitiveness.

Competitiveness: EU and other grants and sources of funding are highly competitive. Our experience in the value chain, from idea development to proposal and project management, assist our clients in getting successful results.

Green2Sustain partners provide tools, solutions and best practices for cultivating innovative ideas, matching them with EU and other funding mechanisms objectives and help you write winning proposals, working either as your partner or as your consultants.

Sustainability: Green2Sustain partners can help you improve, change and technically progress to facilitate environmentally, socially and economically sustainable business conduct, through services that propel the sustainable management of water resources, waste, energy, natural environment and raw materials.

Green2Sustain partners are experts in assessing the economic impacts of any environmental change, reflecting the footprint of activities and investments from a socio-economic point of view, leading towards sustainable management of environment, society and economy as a whole.

Environment: Green2Sustain partners have more than 15 consequent years of professional experience in environmental management, environmental monitoring, environmental data analysis, ecosystems status assessment and in environmental impacts of activities of great local, regional or national importance.

Our partners are experienced in managing all individual environmental sectors (water, soil, air, manmade environment, waste, flora/fauna etc.), and we devote the necessary and appropriate human resources to any environmental problem, providing reliable and innovative solutions.

sustainable solutions

We provide sustainable solutions that can turn your need for continuous corporate growth into a corporate sustainability strategy. We help you boost your company’s eco-efficiency and socio-efficiency, supporting you in securing:
profitability through increased awareness of products and services; lower costs through better management of resources (human, natural, cultural, etc.); satisfaction of all parties involved in your activity; competitively priced services that satisfy human needs and, while progressively reducing ecological impacts; bigger added value and social impact; compliance with laws, directives and regulations; better control over any internal adaptation action; better control over internal and external image.
Within the framework of Sustainability Assessment and Reporting, we will help you apply international standards, guidelines and protocols:
GRI G4: The new generation of the Global Reporting Initiative, which ensures that you show only the essential aspects of your business, saving human and financial resources;
ISO 26000: the standard that gives guidance on issues that should be of interest;
UN Global Compact: The basic sustainable entrepreneurship principles proposed by the United Nations.
In addition, we can assist you to organize the team that will compile the annual Sustainability Report or we do the Report for you to save resources; gain experience and receive valuable feedback for necessary adaptation actions.
The advantages of the Sustainable Entrepreneurial Strategy, and the experience of our partners in terms of social and environmental assessment, can be an important lever for promoting cooperation, synergies and mutual support.


Check out some of our projects

The role of ecological corridors in reconnecting fragmented habitats
Rehabilitation study of oil-polluted areas

environmental consulting

We undertake for you, environmental impact assessment studies, as also the tasks of studying, devising models, utilizing scientific tools and managing:
Water resources (surface water, ground water and marine water); natural environment (land and marine habitats, species of flora, fauna and avifauna); solid waste and wastewater (classification of hazardous and non-hazardous waste, treatment plant design – waste management plans); soil resources and sediments; air emissions from construction sites, transportation projects and industrial activities; noise emissions from construction sites, transportation projects and other activities; visual impacts of interventions in the landscape, and of various facilities and buildings.
We are willing and able to tackle the environmental and social impacts of projects and activities, to protect the environment, and also to indicate methods for mitigation or compensation.
We help you analyze any project or activity regarding its environmental footprint, to:
Obtain an environmental permit; to modify or renew your permit; to improve any environmental behavior; to save resources and money.
The significant experience of our partners, our realistic approach to financial costs and the oversupply of environmental objects that we can fulfill, are shaping our ambition to provide important incentives for cooperation, synergy and mutual support.

Check out some of our projects

Environmental permitting services for food industry
Environment study for parts of a road network
EΙA for mining and metallurgical activities

european programmes

We undertake for you the search and assiduous study of funding programmes, calls and tools so as to fully provide you with a business proposal that best fits your needs.
Moreover, we take over the proposal set up from the start until the final evaluation in all stages. That includes, first of all the careful study of the call, the collection of all necessary documents, the writing of the proposal and all the procedural actions for the final submission of the proposal.
In addition, we have under control the follow up of the proposal in both cases of either successful or unsuccessful progress.
Our project management team guarantees you a fully organized and integrated solution in all stages of the proposal.

Check out some of our projects:

COSME: meetnature, tourism product for seniors
SME instrument: careweev, nanomaterials and processes
European FP7: MARSOL project
LIFE+:’reclaim’ innovative project on Landfill Mining